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Author of “Jewish Life in Modern Time*, 
“The Ruhleben Prison Camp,” etc. 





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T HE most sinister phenomenon in the history of 
modern Jewry is the hostile movement gene- 
rally known by the name of Anti-Semitism. 
The Jews have, throughout their dispersion, been 
exposed to a succession of attacks on the part of the 
States or the peoples in whose midst they dvelt, 
but from the last quarter of the nineteenth century 
these attacks assumed a new form and were, therefore, 
distinguished by a new name. In former ages, the 
prejudice against the Jew was based upon his religion 
and disappeared when he abandoned the faith of his 
fathers. In modern times it has developed into 
something wider and deeper. The prejudice is 
directed against the Jews as a race and manhests 
itself in all phases of human activity. It seeks its 
justification in all that the Jews may say, do, or 
think ; it feeds upon popular superstitions, exploded 
myths, and uncontrollable rumours ; and it expresses 
itself in a variety of acts of intolerance suggesth e 
of the age of mediaeval barbarism. Anti-Semitism 
knows of no redeeming quality in the Jew. It 
regards him as a perennial source of evil and danger 
to the State, and demands his expulsion or his 

The “ spiritual home ” of this fanatical move- 
ment is Germany, whence it has penetrated to 
other countries ; and a brief survey of the course 
it has run in Germany since the establishment of 

4 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

the Empire will show what indignity, suffering, 
and injustice the Jews have had to endure in a 
land that never ceases to boast of its Kultur. 

Anti Semitism began to manifest itself against 
the Jews in Germany very soon after the victorious 
campaign against France, although they bore their 
full share in the efforts of the Fatherland. The 
movement against the Jews arose from a variety of 
motives, and the multiplicity of its origin largely 
contributed to its strength and bitterness. In the 
first place, the State was engaged in a stubborn 
fight against the Catholic Church, which sought to 
inciease its authority ; and as the leaders of the 
latter body were unable to make any headway in the 
struggle they represented the Kulturkampf as a 
war of Jewry against Christendom, as an onslaught 

on the part of the “ alien ” Jewish element against 

The Catholic organs, especially the Germania 
and the Kolnische Volkszeitung , indulged in the 
most unbridled abuse of the Jews. The former 
demanded that all the offences of individual Jews 
should be carefully recorded, so that they might 
be attributed to the whole of Jewry, and also that 
the Jews should be boycotted. The Catholics were 
soon joined in their unholy warfare by the Protes- 
tants, and having succeeded in making the Jews 
appear as the enemies of the State and society, 
they were content to leave the leadership to the 

This religious attack was soon reinforced by 
assaults from the commercial, political, and even 


Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

scientific domains. The material prosperity that 
followed the conclusion of the Franco-German war 
led to the formation of hosts of companies, and a 
great deal of reckless speculation. Despite repeated 
warnings, especially the exposures in the Reichstag 
bv the leading Tewish politicians, Lasker and Bam- 
berger, the not of commercial gambling continued 
until, in 1873, the great bubble burst. Hundreds of 
companies were ruined, and hundreds of thousands of 
investors were despoiled, either of a big part 01 of the 
whole of their fortune. At once the entire blame was 
fastened upon the Jews, who were denounced as 
exploiters, usurers, and swindlers. That Jews were 
largely represented among the Stock Exchange 
speculators was true, but it was also inevitable, since 
for more than a thousand years the State had con- 
fined the economic activities of the Jew to commerce. 
But they represented only a minority of the 
promoters involved in the scandal. 

Popular feeling was inflamed by the publication 
of a sensational pamphlet, Der Sieg des Juden- 
tums fiber das Germanentum,” by a hitherto 
unknown scribe, Wilhelm Marr, who demanded that 
the State should be a nacional unit comprising 
only individuals of the same racial origin. Marr 
argued that the heterogeneous elements should 
either be absorbed or eliminated. Such was the 
pseudo-scientific principle of the new Anti-Semitism. 
Shortly afterwards there appeared another sen- 
sational pamphlet, by Otto Glogau, violently at- 
tacking the Jews for their participation in the 
commercial scandals. 

6 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

The political impetus to Anti-Semitism was 
supplied by Bismarck. Since 1877 the relations 
between Bismarck and the National Liberals had 
gradually become strained, after the leaders of this 
party, Lasker and Bamberger, had helped the Iron 
Chancellor to bring about the consolidation of the 
Empire. Bismarck now wanted the support of these 
leaders in his proposals for new taxes. Lasker and 
Bamberger replied by demanding the introduction 
of a constitutional and economic regime like that in 
England, and as Bismarck refused they led a power- 
ful secession of National Liberals into opposition. 

Bismarck was then compelled to seek a new 
majority among the Catholic and Conservative 
parties, and in order to wreak his revenge upon the 
Judaised Liberals ” he decided to make use of 
the convenient weapon supplied by Anti-Semitism. 
From 1878 Anti-Semitism became a distinct politi- 
cal programme. It was the first time in the history 
of a modern State that candidates sought election 
to Parliament on the ground of their enmity 
towards the Jews. The elections of that year 
resulted in an increase of Conservative members, 
and an attempt was made to win over the masses of 
the people to the Conservative programme by the 
foundation of the Christian Socialist Party. 

The founder of this new party was the Court 
Preacher, Adolf Stocker, who combined eloquence 
and energy with social influence. Under his male- 
ficent direction, there began a campaign of abuse and 
hostility against the Jews, which made their so-called 
civil rights a mere mockery. Stocker created his 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. 


Christian Socialism with a view to bringing the 
masses under the influence of the Church and using 
them for his nefarious policy. He had the support 
of Conservatives, Lutherans, and Lltramontanes, 
and with their combined aid violent onslaughts were 
made in the Prussian Diet against the Jews. . A 
petition was even addressed to Bismarck piaying 
for the exclusion of the Jews from the national 
schools and universities, and also from all public 

Stocker found a powerful champion of his 
reactionary doctrines in the historian Treitschke, 
who, through his lectures at the Berlin University, 
was able to poison the minds of the academic youth 
against the Jewish people. In his pamphlet, “ Ein 
Wort iiber unsere Juden,” Treitschke spoke of the 
German Jews as “ Polish youths engaged in the sale 
of trousers,” and wrote : “In the circles of educated 
Germans, who would protest indignantly against the 
charge of religious or national intolerance, one single 
cry is heard, ‘ The Jews are our misfortune/ ” The 
statements of Treitschke were actually referred to by 
Von Puttkamer, who was appointed Minister of 
Public Worship by Bismarck, as proof of the necessity 
of preserving the denominational character of public 

In the course of a debate in the Prussian 
Diet, Professor Virchow declared that the Anti- 
Semitic movement had received encouragement and 
material aid from the secret funds of the Government, 
which desired to see some Jewish deputies defeated. 
Treitschke was not the only academic champion of 

S Aiiti-Senqdtism in Germany. 

Anti-Semitism. He was seconded by Eugen Duhring, 
a Socialist lecturer on philosophy, whose antipathy 
to all products of the Semitic spirit was so strong 
that he even attacked Christianity. The example 
set by these University luminaries found innumer- 
able imitators. Even the semi-official Norddeutsche 
Allgem, eine Zeitung indulged in Jew-baiting, and 
hence it was not surprising that every provincial 
paper engaged in the like sport. 

But the attacks were not confined to pamphlets 
or the press. The Jews were soon subjected to 
petty persecutions and violent assaults. In many 
rural districts the roofs of their houses were re- 
moved, their fruit-trees were cut down, and their 
olive-yards and cornfields were laid waste. “ In 
the small towns,” says Professor Martin Philippson, 
the Jews found themselves boycotted in society, 
and often also in business. Officers and officials 
openly displayed Anti-Semitic papers, the students 
mocked and thrashed their Jewish comrades, pro- 
ceedings which often led to duels ; in gymnastic 
and veterans' societies the cry re-echoed : ‘ Out 

with the Jews ! ' Restaurants and hotels tried to 
attract the Anti-Semitic public by proclaiming 
themselves as judenrein (free from Jews). Many 
watering-places and health resorts made the stay 
of Jewish visitors impossible.” * 

These senseless attacks upon the Jews aroused 
a feeling of revulsion among the enlightened intel- 
lectual element, and a manifesto, signed by a number 

* Prof. Martin Philippson, Neueste Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes , 

vol. ii. , pp. 17-18. 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. y 

of illustrious men, including Mommsen, Gneist, 
Virchow, and Siemens, was published, denouncing 
Anti-Semitism as a blot on German culture and as 
a gross injustice to the Jews themselves. But so 
strong did the anti- Jewish feeling become that 
even Mommsen was swept away by it : he described 
the Jews as an element of decomposition and 
called upon them to shake off their characteristics 
and adopt Christianity. 

On the other hand, Christian defenders of the 
Jews, whether dead or living, were exposed to 
bitter abuse. A movement to raise a statue to 
Lessing in Berlin was vigorously opposed by the 
Conservatives and Clerics, and the realisation of the 
project was long deferred. Similarly, the celebration 
of the seventieth birthday of Professor Virchow, 
who bravely championed the Jewish cause, aroused 
a strong counter-agitation among German students. 
The Prussian Government, which was repeatedly 
appealed to, said that it would protect the Jews in 
their constitutional rights, but it made liberal con- 
cessions to the Anti-Semites. Instigated by the 
Government, the Reichstag refused to grant Jewish 
ministers of religion the same privileges as were 
enjoyed by Christian ministers in regard to the 
discharge of military duty, whilst the Minister of 
Instruction, Von Puttkamer, reiused 10 appoint 
Jews as teachers at higher grade schools. 

In the leading university towns societies were 
formed by German students with a programme of 
active Anti-Semitism, and municipal elections too 
were soon vitiated by the same racial intolerance. 

10 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

. ) 

Personal insults of Jews in the streets, in restau- 
rants, and cafes became the order of the day, leading 
to numerous duels, often with a fatal consequence. 
On New Year's Eve, 1881, a band of 500 Anti- 
Semitic rowdies rushed through the Jewish quarters 
in Berlin, committing outrages wherever they could. 
That these excesses did not become worse was solely 
due to the restraining influence exercised by the 
Socialist leaders, Bebel and Liebknecht, among the 
working classes. 

The agitation was not by any means confined 
to the capital it spread to all parts of Germany, 
and was particularly violent in Saxony. At a Church 
Conference in Thuringia a pastor declared that 
the Jews must be rooted out with iron hooks." 
Military officers, civil officials, judges, university 
professors, all worked assiduously for the exclusion 
of Jews from their particular professions. Anti- 
Semitic outbreaks were treated by the police with a 
leniency that contrasted strangely with their atti- 
tude towards Socialist demonstrations. Lawyers 
regarded the prevalent feeling as a mitigating 
circumstance in anti-Jewish attacks, whilst the 
courts did not allow any Jewish body to prosecute 
in the name of the Jewish people. Life became so 
uncertain that many Jews left Berlin and Frankfort 
for safer districts. 

Riots broke out in the east of Brandenburg, 
in Pomerania, and West Prussia. In Neustettin 
many Jews were assaulted and damage was done to 
houses and furniture ; in Hammerstein the syna- 
gogue was damaged three times ; and violent dis- 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. 


turbances occurred in a number of other places— 
Bublitz, Jastrow, Konitz, Falkenburg, Rumrnels- 
burg, Lauenburg, Polzin, Pollnow, Baldenburg, 
S chived) ein, and Stolp — causing hundreds of 
families to flee for refuge. 

’ The Anti-Semites, realising their increasing 
strength, held their first “ International Congress '' 
in 1881 at Dresden. It was attended by 300 
members, including Austrians, Hungarians, and 
Russians, and it resolved to issue a “ Manifesto to 
the Governments and Peoples of the Christian 
States endangered by Judaism/' But the Congress 
and its Manifesto had no effect, because the pogroms 
in Russia had just broken out. That the origin of 
these massacres was to be traced to civilised Germany 
is admitted by even so cautious and dispassionate 
a historian as Professor Philippson, for he writes : 

Even Germany, characterised by the whole world 
as the home of Anti-Semitism, did not remain 
unmoved by the horror aroused by these atrocities, 
for it indeed bore a good share of responsibility 
for their occurrence/'* 

Owing partly to the reaction caused by the 
Russian pogroms, and partly to the differences 
among the Anti-Semites themselves, the Jews en- 
joyed a brief respite. The racial views of Marr 
and Treitschke, which were also adopted by 
Nietzsche, were unacceptable to Stocker and Iris 
Christian Socialists, and hence, in March, 1881, two 
rival bodies were created, the “ Deutscher 
Volksverein " and the “ Sozialer Reichsverein.” 

* Neuesti Geschichte des judiscker. Voi&es, vol. ii., p. 29. 

12 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

Five years iater, at an Anti-Semitic Congress at 
Cassel, a reunion was effected under the name of 
“ Deutscher Antisemitischer Verein,’’ but in June, 
1889, the Christian Socialists under Stocker seceded 

Not content with his success in Germany, 
Stocker resolved to propagate his sinister gospel in 
England. He came to London in 1883 and wished 
to hold a meeting in the Mansion House, but the 
Lord Mayor declined the honour. Thereupon he 
organised a public meeting at the Memorial Hall 
(November 1-lth, 1883), but the opposition was so 
strong that the meeting had to be abandoned. 
Upon his return to the Fatherland, Stocker continued 
his slanderous campaign, with the result that he was 
declared a perjurer by one of the courts in which he 
was prosecuted. But his followers were so lost to 
all sense of shame that they presented him with a 
consolation prize of 60,000 marks, and an Orthodox 
Church Conference actually addressed him in the 
words : “ God Himself will heal the wound that you 
have sustained.’ ’ 

Yet, although Stocker was publicly discredited, 
the Government took no steps to repress the agita- 
tion that he had brought into being. On the 
contrary, in all the German States the Jews were 
gradually excluded from all branches of the civil 
service, from a military career, and from * the 
teaching profession. Petitions were also addressed 
to the Government to prohibit all Jewish immigra- 
tion from Russia, and, although they were not 
directly granted, the Government agreed to exercise 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. 


strict supervision over the Russian refugees who 
arrived in large numbers in Germany. The Govern- 
ment discovered a long-forgotten law, from which it 
deduced the right to expel all foreigners employed 
by a Jewish community (October, 1884) ; and an 
edict issued in 1885 for the expulsion of all foreign 
Poles from the eastern provinces of Germany was 
undoubtedly aimed at the Russian Jews domiciled 
in those parts. 

Moreover, various attempts were made to de- 
prive the Jews of their constitutional rights, and 
motions were repeatedly brought forward, not only 
in the Reichstag, but in the Diets of the Federal 
States, to appoint commissions for the investiga- 
tion and the translation of the Talmud and the 
“ Shulchan Aruch ” at the expense of the Govern- 
ment, and to cause the prohibition of “ Shechita ” 
the Jewish ritual method of slaughtering. These 
proposals, which were all so reminiscent of the 
middle ages, had the support of many leading 
scholars and scientists. The historian Treitschke 
and the economist Adolf Wagner were joined in 
1886 by the Orientalist Paul de Lagarde, who 
emphatically demanded the complete absorption 
of the Jews in the German State, or their wholesale 

From 1887 Anti-Semitism entered upon a new 
and worse period of vilification. The Reichstag 
resounded with anti-Jewish denunciations from 
Stocker and his coadjutors, Bockel and Liebermann 
von Sonnenberg. Anti-Semitic social gatherings 
were arranged, at which music was provided by 


14 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

military bands, although these were not allowed to 
play at Radical meetings. Newspapers were founded 
for purely anti-Jewish purposes, supplemented by 
comic papers and caricatures. The accession of 
William II. brought another brief respite, but in 
June, 1889, a fresh campaign was opened by the 
Catholic Germania and the Conservative Kreuz- 
zeitung. An Anti-Semitic Congress held at the same 
time at Bochum demanded that the Jews should be 
deprived of all State and commercial honours and 
offices and should also be excluded from the army. 
The position of the Jews was becoming more and 
more seriously undermined in the social and economic 
world : they were met everywhere with hatred and 
contempt. Their arch-enemy, Stocker, was dis- 
missed at the end of 1830 from the office of Court 
Preacher, not, however, because of his Anti- 
Semitism, but because of his presumptuous attitude 
towards the Imperial Family. But, though dis- 
graced, Stocker continued his savage campaign 

A new agitator then arose in the person of 
Hermann Ahlwardt, a man of evil notoriety, who had 
been dismissed from his post as head of a school. 
An unscrupulous demagogue of the worst order, he 
outdid all his predecessors in sensationalism and 
violence. He issued a shoal of villainous pamphlets, 
and was repeatedly prosecuted for libel and con- 
victed, but his influence only increased. In 
February, 1889, a band of 500 youths raided the 
streets in the south-east of Berlin, plundering 
wherever they could ; amid wild shouts of “Juden 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. 15 

heraus ! ” (Out with the Jews). The State authorities 
connived at all anti- Jewish attacks, and hence it 
was not surprising that the President of the 
Oberlandesgericht (Supreme Court) of the Province 
of Silesia, in Breslau, issued an order in May, 1891, 
to the presidents of all courts in his jurisdiction, to 
exclude all Jews from their jury lists “ except those 
who were suitable/' It was observed, moreover, 
that at the elections for the Prussian Diet, when the 
voting is public, all the officials, from the highest 
to the lowest, gave their suffrages to Anti-Semitic 
candidates. So threatening was the hostility becom- 
ing that early in 1891 a society was founded by a 
number of leading liberal-minded men for defence 
against anti-Semitism. 

No sooner was this society founded than it had 
work to do. At Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, there 
was found, on June 29th, 1891, the body of a five- 
year-old boy with his throat cut. At once the old 
legend of ritual murder was resurrected. A Jewish 
butcher, Adolf Buschoff, was accused, and he and his 
family were imprisoned. But as nothing was proved 
they were released at the end of the year. A few 
months later Stocker made an interpellation on the 
matter in the Prussian Diet, with the result that 
Buschoff was again arrested and tried. The verdict 
was an acquittal, but Buschoff and other Jews were 
compelled to leave Xanten. The next scandal was 
caused by a pamphlet of Ahlwardt, “ Judenflinten,” 
in which he accused the armament firm of Ludwig 
Lowe ^of being bribed by the xALliance Israelite of 
Paris to deliver inferior guns to the Prussian Army , 


Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

so that the latter might be defeated in the next war 
of revenge. The falsity of the charge was proved by 
a Government official, but it was not until after 
thousands of copies of the pamphlet had been sold 
in the streets that it was confiscated, and Ahlwardt, 
after prosecution, was sentenced to five months' 

“ The savage war against the Jews," writes 
Professor Philippson, “ raged everywhere in North 
Germany, threatened their honour and social position 
and even, especial!}’ in the small towns, their 
material existence. There had not been such 
happenings since the ‘ Hep, hep ! ’ riots of seventy 
years before. At Christmas, 1S92, tickets were 
distributed and stamps affixed everywhere with the 
inscription : ' Don’t buy from Jews ! ’ The personal 
mockery and maltreatment of individual Jews by 
Anti-Semitic roughs, among whom there were often 
so-called educated people, were the order of the dav, 
and likewise the exclusion of Jews from social and 
athletic unions, and even from public and private 
appointments. Many bathing-resorts, especi all y on 
the Baltic coast and the North Sea, refused admis- 
sion to Jewish visitors. Even before the majesty and 
the sorrow of death Anti-Semitism made no halt ! 
Jewish funerals were scoffed at, Jewish cemeteries 
were desecrated by ruffians. Jewish houses were 
defiled with mire ; obscene postcards — naturallv 
anonymous — were sent to Jews. The shop windows 
of many booksellers and newspaper shops teemed 
with caricatures and lampoons against the Jews/’* 

* -A eu&ste Geschichre zes ~ fizischen Volkes, vol. ii. , pp. 48, 49. 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. 


There appeared to be no limits to the excesses 
or the extravagance of the Jew-baiters. At a North- 
German Anti-Semitic Conference in Berlin, held on 
September 18th, 1893, and attended by a thousand 
persons, the State was called upon to confiscate 
Jewish capital, “ as it had come only from robbery 
of the German people/' In the following year the 
German Social Reform Party demanded in the 
Reichstag the abolition of Shechita," the intro- 
duction of a religious oath in law courts,, and the 
prohibition of the immigration of foreign Jews, 
but these demands were rejected. A sensation was 
caused soon after by the declaration of the Supreme 
Court of Justice in Germany Reichsgenchi in 
Leipzig that all slanders against institutions of the 
Jewish religion were directed not against Judaism, 
but against the Jewish race, which did not enjoy 
legal protection, and this decision was naturally 
followed in the lower courts. Of a kindred nature 
was the declaration, made a few years later, by the 
Prussian Minister of Justice at the Diet January 
31st — February 1st, 1901), that the rule of the 
Constitution that the enjoyment of civil and Mate 
rights is independent of one's religious denomination 
does not hold for the Jews and is systematically 
ignored in regard to them by the Prussian Govern- 
ment. Three hundred Jewish communities in Prussia 
at once addressed a protest to the Minister-President, 
the Imperial Chancellor, von Billow, but they were 
not even vouchsafed a reply. 

The leaders of the Anti-Semitic party became 
more and more discredited owing to their evil fives, 

18 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

but the seed they had sown could not be rooted out. 
One of the most remarkable figures among them was 
a demented Silesian nobleman, Count Piickler, 
who began a new crusade in Berlin, demanding the 
extermination of the Jews. The Count was 
repeatedly prosecuted and acquitted, until he was 
ultimately interned in a mad-house. The “ritual 
murder ’’ scare was again raised in the ’90s in 
various parts of North Germany, at Berent and 
Skurz (West Prussia), Konigshutte (Upper Silesia), 
Ubermatzhofen (Bavaria), etc., and everywhere the 
untruth of the accusation was conclusively proved. 
The most serious case was at Konitz (West Prussia), 
where, on March 11th, 1900, the mutilated body of 
a dissolute student, Ernst Winter, was found. A 
Jewish butcher, Israelski, was kept in prison five 
months until his innocence was proved, and his ac- 
quittal caused such a disturbance in the town that 
an infantry battalion had to clear the streets with 
bayonets. Even the declaration of the Ministers 
of Justice and of the Interior left the charge of 
“ritual murder” an open question. 

Sufficient evidence has already been advanced 
to show that, although Anti-Semitism was conducted 
as a political party, its tenets were fully approved 
by the German Government ; and it was for the 
express purpose of safeguarding the rights granted 
to them by the Constitution that the Jews of 
Germany, in 1892, founded the “ Centralverein 
deutscher Staatsbiirger jiidischen Glaubens,” and, in 
1904, the \ erband der deutschen Juden.” Thanks 
to the efiorts of these two bodies, the Anti-Semitic 

Anti-Semitism in Germany. 


party, as a party, has lost its influence ; but Anti- 
Semitism is just as rampant as ever among the 
Conservatives and the National Liberals, among 
the landed aristocracy and military circles. Before 
the war no Jew might receive a commission in the 
army, and he was even denied the trifling honour of 
becoming a lieutenant of the reserve ; and although, 
since the war, commissions have had to be conferred 
upon some Jewish soldiers, to fill the gaps in the 
ranks of officers, there is no guarantee that the 
holders will be permitted to retain them after the 


Similarly, the civil service is still rigorously 
barred to the Jews, and although Jews distinguish 
themselves so highly at the universities they are 
denied an ordinary professorship unless they accept 
baptism. Even the famous Professor Ehrlich had 
to be content with an extraordinary professorship. 
The anti- Jewish feeling at the seats of learning is so 
strong that Jews are not admitted to the regular 
students’ corps or unions and have, therefore, 
founded their own. 

The Anti-Semitism of the Government is not 
confined to native Jews but is equally extended to 
Jews from other countries. Foreign Jews who have 
long been resident in the country are refused 
naturalisation, without any reason being assigned. 
Only a year before the outbreak of the war a ie- 
markable movement began at all the leading 
German universities for the exclusion of Russo- 
Jewish students, who were thus compelled . to 
migrate to Switzerland, Italy, and other countries. 

20 Anti-Semitism in Germany. 

" Can the leopard change his spots ? ” It 
would be hazardous, indeed, to believe that Germany, 
which is so saturated with the Anti-Semitic virus, 
will emerge from the war a liberal and enlightened 
country. The recent suggestion that, in the reforma- 
tion of the Prussian Upper Plouse, provision should 
be made for the inclusion of some eminent Jewish 
representatives was indignantly spurned. This 
reactionary attitude is typical of the German State, 
which, despite all its vaunted civilisation, continues 
to maintain a policy of intolerance and hostility 
towards its Jewish subjects. 

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